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Buy Tadalafil Powder Online.Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were develope for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Taguchi design was employ to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepare by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluate. The optimized formulation is prepare using 7.5 mg of PLGA, 2.5 mg of TAD,

sonication time of 6 min and 2% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the stabilizer. The optimized aqueous/oil phase ratio for PLGA-NPs preparation was 10:1. Polymer/drug ratio was the most effective parameter on the release efficiency. Encapsulation efficiency, zeta potential and particle size of PLGA-NPs were more affected by aqueous/organic phase ratio.

The spray dried powders containing PLGA-NPs had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of 1.4–2.8 μm that was suitable for TAD delivery to the deep region of lung.

The presence of L- leucine in mannitol containing formulations decreased the interparticulate forces between particles and increased significantly the process yield and fine particle fraction (FPF).

The results indicated that prepared dry powders containing TAD-loaded PLGA-NPs were suitable for inhalation and has the potential for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Keywords: Tadalafil, PLGA, Nanoparticles, Spray drying, Dry powder inhaler

INTRODUCTION

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathophysiological and hemodynamic condition in which average blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries is greater than 25 mmHg at rest ().

The current treatments for PH include endothelin receptor antagonists, calcium antagonist, anticoagulant, prostacyclins analogues, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5) (). High concentrations of PDE-5 in the pulmonary arteries and its function can cause abnormal growth of vessels and impaired vasodilatation ().

Tadalafil (TAD), the most potent inhibitor of PDE-5 enzyme, was documented to improve pulmonary hemodynamics.

TAD belongs to the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drugs.

Inadequate aqueous solubility of TAD caused variations in bioavailability and clinical drug responses (). In addition, peroral administration of TAD leads to systemic availability of the drug that results in unwanted side effects. The pulmonary route has received extensive attention as noninvasive method of drug administration for local and systemic drug delivery due to the large surface area,

fairly low activity of enzymes,

high vascularization, and high permeability owing to extremely thin walls of the alveoli.

Furthermore,

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the possibility to deliver therapeutic agents at high concentrations into site of action by preventing the first-pass metabolism and reduced systemic doses allow efficient treatment of pulmonary disease and minimum drug side effects ().

The delivery of TAD to the lung could allow safe local treatment,

more rapid onset of response and reduced side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained considerable attention as a carrier for pulmonary delivery due to the ability to penetrate into airway mucosa, while avoiding macrophages and mucociliary clearance.

They provide some other advantages, including increase of drug solubility,

high drug loading capacity, sustained release property which reduces frequency of dosing and shortens treatment period. NPs also have wider distribution in the lung because of the higher surface area to mass ratio (). However,

NPs are not suitable for deep lung delivery due to their low inertia causing them to be breathed out after inhalation which may lead to dose variability. In addition, NPs join together to form large aggregate due to their high free surface energy. To avoid these problems, preparation of microscale powder containing NPs, is unavoidable (). Sugars,

INTRODUCTION

such as lactose or mannitol,

have been employed as inert carriers of NPs because they are nontoxic and approved by FDA (). After deposition in the lung, the microparticles dissolve and dissociate into primary NPs in the surface of alveoli (). Spray drying is known as a scalable process to produce inhalable powder for lung delivery.

It is a rapid, single step process that converts very small liquid droplets to dry product of powder with optimum particle characteristics, including size and density suitable for pulmonary delivery (). Metered-dose inhalers (MDI), nebulizers,

and dry powder inhalers (DPI) are the three main aerosol devices used to deliver therapeutic agents to the lung (). Among these, DPI appears to be the most promising because they are propellant-free, portable,

easy to operate and cost effective devices with enhanced stability of the formulation upon storage as a result of the dry state ().

Polymeric nanospheres composed of poly lactide-co- glycolic acid (PLGA) have received a great attention for delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to its advantages such as biocompatibility,

biodegradability, drug release control, drug targeting and lower toxicity compared to other polymers and more stability than liposomes and other drug delivery systems in biological environments (,).

In the present study, we have developed an inhalable powder containing TAD-loaded polymeric colloidal formulation for the therapy of PH.

The effects of sonication time (S) as a process variable,

as well as formulation variables such as aqueous/organic phase ratio (W/O),

polymer/drug (P/D) ratio and surfactant concentration on different physicochemical properties of NPs is evaluate. Then,

microstructures containing optimize NPs is prepare and the influence of carrier type on the characteristics of the powder is evaluate.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

Materials

TAD was provided by Osvah pharmaceutical company (Iran). PLGA (50:50, molecular weight of 24,000–38,000) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, 99% hydrolysis degree and molecular mass 66000 g/mol) is acquire from Sigma-Aldrich (US). Dichloromethane (DCM) of analytical grade is obtaine from Merck chemical company (Germany). Dialysis bag is supply from Sigma-Aldrich (US). Mannitol, leucine and lactose were from Fluka (US).

 

Experimental design

Four different control factors,

each at 3 levels were studied in the production of PLGA-NPs by a Taguchi design L9 orthogonal array experiment. Four investigated responses included particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE) and release efficiency. Design expert program (version 10, US) is use for statistical analysis of experimental results. Table 1 displays formulations studied in the present study.

The optimum conditions is determine by the Taguchi optimization method to yield a heightene performance with the lowest possible effect of noise factor.

Additional Information

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10 Grams

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